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bout 3 years ago, I was diagnosed with complex cyst in my left ovary. The size was 2cm by 3cm. Doctor recommended pap smear test and blood test. Unaware about this, I searched online, through many health sites and found some facts that I did not get from my doctor. I’d like to write here so that you, my fellow ladies, would become aware of your own bodies and take a good care of them.

Description of Ovarian Cyst
An ovarian cyst is any collection of fluid, surrounded by a very thin wall, within an ovary. Any ovarian follicle that is larger than about two cm is considered an ovarian cyst. An ovarian cyst can be as small as a pea, or larger than a cantaloupe.
Most ovarian cysts are functional in nature (some say “simple cyst”), as they are parts of menstruation cycles and have nothing to do with disease. We start puberty with about 400,000 egg-producing follicles in our ovaries. Each month hundreds of these follicles attempt to develop, fail to do so and (sadly) die. Only one (rarely several) succeeds in it’s developmental effort and continues the process that allows it to produce a mature egg. It enlarges, produces estrogen and secretes fluid that surrounds the egg, then breaks open and releases the egg into the fallopian tube during ovulation. Once its egg is extruded, the follicle continues to function for the next two weeks as a corpus luteum secreting both estrogen and progesterone; hormones that prepare the uterine lining to receive and nourish a possible pregnancy. In the absence of a pregnancy, the corpus luteum collapses and disappears. Hence, each month that a woman ovulates, a small ovarian cyst is formed; this usually measures 1.5 to 2 centimeters. Subsequent to the release of the egg, this cyst or corpus luteum may collect a small amount of blood prior to its degeneration.
the egg is not released during a woman’s cycle, the ovary can fill up with fluid. Usually these types of cysts will go away after a few period cycles.
Most of ovarian cysts are benign (harmless, noncancerous). Ovarian cysts affect women of all ages. They occur most often, however, during a woman’s childbearing years.
Some ovarian cysts cause problems, such as bleeding and pain. Surgery may be required to remove cysts larger than 5 centimeters in diameter.

Types of Cyst 

1. Graafian follicle cyst
One type of simple cyst, which is the most common type of ovarian cyst, is the graafian follicle cyst, follicular cyst, or dentigerous cyst. This type can form when ovulation doesn’t occur, and a follicle doesn’t rupture or release its egg but instead grows until it becomes a cyst, or when a mature follicle involutes (collapses on itself). It usually forms during ovulation, and can grow to about 6cm (2.3 inches) in diameter. It is thin-walled, lined by one or more layers of granulosa cell, and filled with clear fluid. Its rupture can create sharp, severe pain on the side of the ovary on which the cyst appears. This sharp pain (sometimes called mittelschmerz) occurs in the middle of the menstrual cycle, during ovulation. About a fourth of women with this type of cyst experience pain. Usually, these cysts produce no symptoms and disappear by themselves within a few months. Ultrasound is the primary tool used to document the follicular cyst. A pelvic exam will also aid in the diagnosis if the cyst is large enough to be seen. A doctor monitors these to make sure they disappear, and looks at treatment options if they do not.

2. Corpus luteum cyst
Another is a corpus luteum cyst (which may rupture about the time of menstruation, and take up to three months to disappear entirely). This type of functional cyst occurs after an egg has been released from a follicle. The follicle then becomes a secretory gland that is known as the corpus luteum. The ruptured follicle begins producing large quantities of estrogen and progesterone in preparation for conception. If a pregnancy doesn’t occur, the corpus luteum usually breaks down and disappears. It may, however, fill with fluid or blood, causing the corpus luteum to expand into a cyst, and stay on the ovary. Usually, this cyst is on only one side, and does not produce any symptoms.



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